A DSLR is a digital camera that uses mirrors to direct light from the lens to the viewfinder, which is a hole on the back of the camera you look through to see what you are taking a picture of.
Perspective and human proportion was made
Exposure is the amount of light collected by the sensor of your camera during a single picture.
If the shot is exposed too long the photograph will be washed out.
If the shot is exposed too short the photograph will appear too dark.
Almost all cameras today have light meters which measure the light in the given shot and set as ideal exposure.
The three primary controls your camera uses for exposure are aperture, shutter speed, and ISO.
Before taking a photo, consider these three things:
Aperture in the Camera
Simply put, aperture is a hole within the lens, through which light travels into the camera body.
It is easier to understand the concept if you just think about your eyes. Every camera that we know of today is designed like human eyes.
Size of Aperture- Large versus Small Aperture
In photography, aperture is expressed in f-numbers (for example f/5.6). These f-numbers that are known as “f stops” are a way of describing the size of the aperture, or how open or closed the aperture is.
A smaller f-stop means a larger aperture, while a larger f-stop means a smaller aperture. For example, f/1.4 is larger that f/2.0 and much larger that f/8.0.
Small apertures (high f/numbers ie f/22) increase the depth of field, bringing both the main subject and background into focus.
Large apertures (low f/numbers ie f/2.8) soften background details.
Depth of field (DOF) is the distance to which objects behind and in front of the focal point appear to be in focus.
Shutter speed, also known as “exposure time”, stands for the length of time a camera shutter is open to expose light into the camera sensor.
If the shutter speed is fast, it can freeze action completely.
If the shutter speed is slow, it can create an effect called “motion blur”, where moving objects appear blurred along the direction of motion.
How Shutter Speeds are Measured
Shutter speeds are typically measured in fractions of a second, when they are under a second.
For example ¼ means a quarter of a second, while 1/250 means one two-hundred-and fiftieth of a second or four milliseconds
Rule of Thumb for Shutter Speed
The slowest shutter speed for handheld photography is 1/60. Anything lower than that should either be on a tripod or on a straight, solid surface.
Any slower handheld shutter speed begins to motion blur and your photograph may be out of focus.
ISO is the level of sensitivity of your camera to available light.
The lower the ISO number, the less sensitive it is to the light, while a higher ISO number increases the sensitivity of your camera.
The component within your camera that can change sensitivity is called “image sensor” or simply “sensor”.
With increased sensitivity, your camera sensor can capture images in low-light environments without having to use a flash. But higher sensitivity comes at an expense-it adds grain or “noise” to pictures.
General Rule of Thumb
Bright and sunny, 100 iso
Cloudy, 250 iso
Indoors, 500 iso
Night time without flash, 1600 iso
Modes on the DSLR
M- Manual Control over aperture and shutter
A- Aperture priority
S- Shutter priority (motion is most important)
P- Camera sets shutter speed and aperture
How to Hold a DSLR
Have the camera strap around your neck at all times
Hold the camera by the lens and hand grip if possible- treat with care!